PARC National Disease Task Team

Reptiles and amphibians are among the most imperiled vertebrate taxa, and pathogens are playing a role in their decline. In the past 15 years, widespread epidemics have been observed, such as those associated with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (a type of chytrid fungus) and ranavirus. Recently, Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Snake Fungal Disease) in the eastern USA and a new species of chytrid fungus in Europe (B. salamandrivorans) emerged. Undoubtedly, humans are playing a role in the emergence of herpetofaunal pathogens, whether through altering environmental conditions or translocating pathogens over large geographical distances, where they function as novel disease agents. Conserving the health of herpetofaunal populations is fundamental to conserving the integrity and biodiversity of ecosystems.

Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (PARC) have long recognized the importance of disease, with several PARC regions having Disease Task Teams. Responding to disease emergence often requires collaboration among government agencies, non-government organizations, universities, and the public, which can extend beyond PARC regions. Thus, PARC formed the National Disease Task Team to:


Facilitate and guide communication and collaboration on herpetofaunal diseases among PARC regions, federal and state agencies, and partners


  1. Identify issues and concerns related to herpetofaunal disease in North America;
  2. Coordinate the development of outreach products on herpetofaunal diseases;
  3. Provide a centralized online location where outreach products on herpetofaunal diseases are available; and
  4. Facilitate rapid response to, surveillance of, and research on emerging pathogens in herpetofaunal populations.

Ensuring the health of herpetofaunal populations requires an integrated response and management plan that combines epidemiological knowledge, pathogen surveillance, population monitoring, biomedical diagnostics, and intervention strategies. Success of strategic plans for wildlife diseases demands significant coordination among various experts and natural resource practitioners.

Herpetofaunal Disease Resources

Example of a PARC Disease Fact Sheet on Aural Abscesses

Click here to see PARC Amphibian & Reptile Disease Task Team resources, including region-specific resources, useful websites and other helpful information.

Herpetofaunal Disease Alert System (HDAS)

To facilitate communication of ongoing disease events in amphibians and reptiles, the PARC Disease Task Team (DTT) has created a disease alert email for people in the USA and Canada to report an incident of sick, dying, or multiple dead amphibians or reptiles. For more information, please visit this page.

PARC Disease Task Team Members

  • Jenna Palmisano, Co-Chair, University of Central Florida
  • Lisa Shender, Co-Chair, National Park Service
  • Katie Haman, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
  • Dan Grear, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Michael Adams, U.S. Geological Survey
  • A. Alonso Aguirre, George Mason University 
  • Matthew Allender, University of Illinois
  • Jenn Ballard, Arkansas Game and Fish Commission
  • Molly Bletz, University of Massachusetts Boston
  • Laura Brazelton, Dallas, TX
  • Michelle Christman, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  • Matthew Gray, University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture
  • Paula Henry, U.S. Geological Survey
  • Dede Olson, U.S. Forest Service
  • Christine Parker-Graham, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  • Laura Sprague, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Jenna Palmisano, Co-Chair

Jenna Palmaisano looks at the camera holding a snake. She is wearing a white and black hat, a purple jacket, and black field pants. She is standing in a marsh.

Jenna Palmisano earned her BS at Stetson University where she majored in aquatic and marine biology and minored environmental studies. Jenna is currently a PhD student at the University of Central Florida in Dr. Anna Savage’s Lab. She studies the consequences of an invasive lung parasite, Raillietiella orientalis, at molecular, organismal, and population scales in the pygmy rattlesnake, Sistrurus miliarius. Though the focal species of her dissertation is Sistrurus miliarius, she also works to assess all species of snakes in North America that are at risk of infection as the disease caused by the pathogen (pentastomiasis) can be severe and often lethal. She is the founder of a collaborative network called SLAM (Snake Lungworm Alliance and Monitoring) that consists of many researchers and land managers across the southeastern United States.


Lisa Shender, Co-Chair

Bio Coming Soon!