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The Mission of Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation:

"To conserve amphibians, reptiles and their habitats as integral parts of our ecosystem and culture through proactive and coordinated public-private partnerships.”

Global Bd Mapping Project Update --- January 2008


Global Bd Mapping Project Update --- January 2008

This is an update to the project initiated about one year ago, to compile information on the global distribution of Bd. A brief summary of the project was provided in April 2007. Here, we report on our findings for data compiled up until November 2007, and presented at the Bd Conference in Tempe, Arizona.


Global Bd Mapping Project Update --- January 2008

Dede Olson and Kathryn Ronnenberg

USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Corvallis, OR

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Initial Objectives

Map where Bd has been:

• sampled and is being sampled.

• detected.

• not detected.

• linked to mortality.



We compiled data from the literature, web sites, and personal communications with scientists. Many regional and country data coordinators helped by compiling records for their area. Very limited quality control was conducted with these data. We used GoogleEarth to help find coordinates for some locations provided with limited text descriptions.



We have summarized those data that we were able to compile up until November 2007. These data include 2,700 records and are from wild and captive animals, and native and introduced species. Our efforts are incomplete in that we have not exhaustively compiled all data that are known at this time.


We provide some numbers and 5 maps.


First, where has Bd been sampled and what taxonomic groups have been sampled?

Bd has been sampled in:

• 87 countries and 44 US states (already sampled or are being sampled now)

• 25 anuran families

• 5 caudate families

• 1 caecilian

• 459 total amphibian species


Second, how frequently is Bd being detected?

Bd has been detected in:

• 38 of 71 (53.5%) countries with data (18 of 38 with mortalities linked to Bd)

• 233 of 422 (55%) anuran species, 17 of 25 families

• 24 of 36 (67%) salamander species, 5 of 5 families


Map 1: Bd Surveys

This map shows the countries where Bd sampling has occurred or is ongoing. Ongoing studies may be completed but are not yet available for mapping purposes. Please note that Bd sampling may have occurred or may be ongoing in only one small location in the larger country indicated. For example, we do not have data for all of Russia, but at least one sampling occasion has been indicated for that country.


Map 2: Bd Detections

This dot map shows locations where Bd has been detected. Salamander dots may cover and obscure frog dots. Data provided to us at the country scale are not mapped here; this map shows data for which we have more precise locations.


Map 3: Bd Not Detected

“Not detected” means animals were sampled for Bd, and Bd was not found. It does not mean “absence” for several reasons, including: a) a small sample of animals may have been tested, and there may be a low prevalence of Bd in that population; b) the timing of sampling may have coincided with a low prevalence of Bd, reducing its detectability; c) the sampling methodology may have been imprecise, inaccurate, or faulty in some way; and d) in some cases, Bd has been both detected and not detected within animals at a location (note overlap of points between Maps 2 and 3). We had a more difficult time compiling No Detection data because it was not always published, or it was not provided to us by data contributors. Hence, these data are more likely to under-represent the actual distribution of places where Bd has not been detected, compared to the Bd Detections map.


Map 4: Zoom In – North America

This map shows a closer look at North America, showing both Bd Detections and No Detections. No Detection dots may be obscured by Detection dots covering them. Caveats about No Detection data are listed in the text for Map 3.


Map 5: Bd Detections with Mortality

We had some indication of mortality within this subset of Bd Detection data. For example, the data contributor may have stated there was mortality associated with the sample, the animal that was sampled died, the animal was dead when sampled, or it was part of a population in which mortality was observed. Whether or not mortality was associated with a Bd Detection record was not always clear in the data we compiled, and we suspect our map under-represents mortality incidences. Not included on this map are locations where losses are hypothesized to be attributed to Bd, but direct supporting evidence appears to be lacking.



We will continue to compile Bd records in early 2008. We will be updating this report and maps. Look for the date in the header information of this report to see if an update has occurred.

We are working with Mat Fisher and David Aanensen of Imperial College, UK, to transition our mapping project to, a program with greater mapping capabilities. The mapping working group at the Bd Conference in Tempe (see mapping working group notes) devised standard database fields for future data collection (see below). Our intent is to continue this effort into the future via this new website and voluntary participation of scientists. Check this PARC website for updates on our transition to spatialepidemiology. For now, please see the three attached documents about this web mapping program: web capabilities database fields policy document

During our transition to spatialepidemiology, we are attempting to contact those data contributors to our mapping project who may have sensitive data, and who may not want their data transitioned to this website. Please see the attached letter if your data may fall into that category.

Letter to data contributors with potentially sensitive data.


A new section of the journal Herpetological Review is now available to publish studies addressing the distribution of Bd. Please see the December 2007 issue for an announcement of this section, and an example submission (note format used). There is no deadline for submission; submit directly to Dede Olson via email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



During data compilation and map production, we thank Kelly Christiansen for cartography, Ken Vance-Borland, Becky Flitcroft, and Google Earth for coordinate conversions, Matt Kluber and Loretta Ellenberg for searching literature, and Dirk Pflugmacher, Nobuya Suzuki, Andy Gray, and Joe Mendelson for translations.

For helping contact people through newsletter, websites, emails, mailing lists and listerservers, we thank Jeanne McKay, Robin Moore, Karen Lips, Joe Mendelson, Joe Collins, Allen Salzberg, David Bradford, Priya Nanjappa Mitchell, Ernie Garcia, Jamie Reaser, and Rob Bakal.

For keeping these websites updated, we thank Brian Todd.

For helping to compile data from their regions or for contributing information, we thank:

David E. Green, Amy Lind, Rob Grasso, Karen Lips,

Che Weldon, Meredith Whitney, Mat Fisher, Gabriela Parra Olea,

Lenny Shirose, Tom Jones, Jodi Rowley, Patricia Burrowes,

Fernando Castro, Rick Lehtinen, Kerry Kriger, Mark-Oliver Roedel,

Nancy Karraker, Stanley Fox, Felipe Toledo, Raul Maneyro,

Eli Greenbaum, Mike Lannoo, Amanda Haigh, Stephanie Shaw,

Mike Adams, Chris Pearl, Doreen Sumerlin, Betsie Rothermel,

Todd Allison, Bill Turner, Kris Kendell, Margarita Lampo,

Lisa Wilkinson, Robert Fisher, Marc Hayes, Gretchen Padgett-Flohr,

Jason Lowe, Steve Wagner, Laura Friis, Claudia Cortez,

Jaime Bosch, Ralph Cutter, David Pilliod, Chuck Peterson,

Karen Beard, Rob Lovich, Bill Turner, Purnima Govindarajulu,

Sumio Okada, Jonathan Kolby, Erin Muths, Jason Nachtmann,

Evelyn Bull, Jamie Bettaso, Bryce Maxell, Doug Woodhams,

Roland Knapp, Karen Pope, Cathy Brown, Nate Nieto,

Mari Reeves, Paul Johnson, Maximus Lo, Valentine Hemingway,

Darlene McGriff, Sarah Kupferberg, Allan Pessier, Vance Vredenberg,

Curtis Milliron, Hart Welsh, Jenni Jensen, Tigran Tadevosayan,

Jim Johnson, Jeff Charbonneau, Mike Sredl, Andy Blaustein,

Wai-Ming Wong, Valérie St-Amou,r P.C. Rosen, Trent Garner,

David Lesbarreres, Sarah Muskopf, Kurt Reed, E.W. Davidson.


We also thank those of you who are not named above but contributed data to us or our regional liaisons. Lastly, we appreciate the conversations we had with many people at the Bd Conference, and we will be working to incorporate your ideas into the future of this effort.



Who is PARC?

Our membership comes from all walks of life and includes individuals from state and federal agencies, conservation organizations, museums, pet trade industry, nature centers, zoos, energy industry, universities, herpetological organizations, research laboratories, forest industries, and environmental consultants.